Akachenti

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Akachenti is the most commonly spoken major dialect of the Kachan language, spoken by the Ogunn people. It is an incorporating fusional polysynthetic language with fluid-S active morphosyntactic alignment and relatively free word order with default OVS.

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Phonology

Orthography

The phonemic inventory of Pre-Modern Akachenti was somewhat captured at the adoption of the Tongchan writing system, a series of glyphs for the perceived phonemes of the language. In particular, the current ae diphthong was considered a vowel, length was distinguished for five of the six vowels, and several current consonantal phonemes were and are considered consonant clusters.

  • Vowels: a, a:, o, o:, u, u:, ae, e, e:, i, i:
  • Consonant "Clusters": nl, hl, tl, dl, ngl, khl, kl, gl

The above are all clicks with pre-glottalized allophones in glottalic tone syllables.

Vowels

The phonemic vowel inventory contrasts five qualities, three heights, and length.

Vowels
Short Vowels Long Vowels
front central back front central back
close i u i: u:
mid e o e: o:
open a a:
PHONEMIC DIPHTHONG aɛ - aɪ

Long vowels are pronounced with a low tone. The phonemic diphthong in the bottom row is the only one treated as a phonemic vowel in Akachenti's orthography and is romanized as ae. Other diphthongs are treated orthographically as vowel clusters.

Diphthongs
Front~Central Back
unrounded rounded rounded
close iɪ - ij ui
mid ie ue
open ia ua

The close diphthongs in the top row are typically falling diphthongs, with the first vowel more prominent, though can realize as rising "diphthong" . The remaining four diphthongs are typically rising, with e and a being prominent.

Consonants

Akachenti has 25 consonants.

Phonemic Consonants
Labial Alveolar Post-Alveolar Velar Glottal
Pulmonic Click Pulmonic Click
Resonant m n ᵑǃ ɾ~ɹ ᵑǁ ŋ
Stop Fortis b~p t ǃ ǁ k ʔ
Lenis d ǃs ᶢǁ g
Affricate Fortis ǃx ǁx
Lenis
Fricative Sibilant s ʃ
Non-Sibilant v~f ç x
  1. ɦ is a common allophone of ç.

Romanization

Consonant Romanization
resonants IPA m n ᵑǃ ɾ~ɹ ᵑǁ ŋ
letter m n nl r ngl ng
fortis stops IPA b~p t ǃ ǁ k ʔ
letter b t tl kl k '
lenis stops IPA d ǃs ᶢǁ g
letter d l gl g
affricates IPA ǃx ǁx
letter hl j ch khl
fricatives IPA v~f s ʃ ç x
letter v s sh h kh

Clusters

Consonant Clusters
n ŋ ɹ ɦ x d
nonlabial click/stop/affr. n(C) ŋ(C)
labial (m, b, v) + g (C)ɹ
v (C)ɹ (C)ɦ (C)x
ʃ (C)d

Regional dialect variations may allow , ʃɹ, , or ɹɦ and ɹx, but this is disfavored in most Akachenti dialect regions.

Allophones

Draft II

Consonant Allophones
Midtone Glottalic Tone Low Tone
Post- Onset Coda Pre- Post- Onset Coda Pre- Post- Onset Coda Pre-
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V
k
C C C C C C
V V V V V V

Draft I

Consonant Allophones
Syllable Midtone (default) Glottalic Tone Low Tone
Onset Intervocalic Coda Word-Final Onset Intervocalic Coda Onset Intervocalic Coda
Q Dialect k k k k
S Dialect k k q q k̬x̆

Prosody

Register

Tone goes hand in hand with variations in quality, duration, and phonation of affected syllables.